Any art in which the depiction of real objects has been subordinated
or discarded in favor of patterns, lines and color.
acid-free foam board
A board made of foamed plastic (polystyrene) material sandwiched
between coated paper from which the acids have been removed or have been
chemically neutralized to raise the pH level above 7 (alkaline).
A vague term, referring to a material with a pH of 7 or higher.
Sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for alkaline or buffered
material. Some acidic materials are chemically neutralized with the
addition of alkaline products; other materials are processed to remove
the acid-producing elements. (Acid-free materials may become acidic over
time due to residual chlorine from bleaching, aluminum sulfate from
sizing or atmospheric pollutants.)
acid-free corrugated cardboard
Corrugated board that has been rendered acid-free; may be lignin
free and/or buffered to raise the pH to 7 or above (alkaline). Used as a
backing board or for making sturdy storage containers for paper art,
textiles or other unframed pieces which should be stored in acid-free
A box-like cover constructed from clear acrylic sheet.
Artists’ colors made by polymerizing a methyl methacrylate by
emulsification, thus dispersing the resin into tiny particles in water.
This fluid is used for a base in compounding polymer colors. Acrylic
colors are water soluble when wet, but dry to an insoluble film. Colors
are bright, dry quickly and are flexible.
An artwork executed with acrylic paint.
An instrument, powered by compressed air, used to spray paint with
delicate control and precision. Paint (usually a fine water color) is
held in a small cup attached to the side of the pen-like instrument.
Paint is drawn through the "brush" by the Venturi effect. The
result is characterized by a very smooth, even texture and unbroken
A clear plastic sheet onto which a drawing is copied, either by
hand-inking or by a xerographic copier process. Colored paints are
applied to the reverse side. One or more cels may be placed over a
painted background, which serves as a setting for the action. In
animated movies and cartoons, twenty-four cels are required for each
second of screen time. Cel is an abbreviation for Celluloid (trademark).
A finishing technique used to give the appearance of age.
Broadly used to describe materials that have the least harmful
effects on the art being framed or stored and thus preserving such
pieces for the longest period of time.
A form of human activity created primarily as an aesthetic
expression, especially, but not limited to drawing, painting and
A skillful craftsman. One skilled in an applied art.
Historically, it was a print retained by the artist for his/her own
use or sale. It may bear the designation A/P.
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Rough, heavily grained wood with the texture and coloring of
weathered wood, as on a barn.
An extremely elaborate and ornate artistic style. This dynamic,
theatrical style dominated art and architecture in Europe during the
A sculptural relief technique in which the projection of the forms
is relatively shallow.
Originated in Java; a method of dyeing textiles. Wax is applied to
sections of material which are to remain uncolored; the dyes do not
penetrate wax. Once dyed, the wax can be removed by various methods,
one of which is boiling. Repeated waxing and dyeing results in
colorful patterns. The lines typically found in batiks are produced by
cracking the hardened wax before applying the dye.
Cutting or shaping the edge or end of a material to form an angle
that is not a right angle, such as the bevel cut on the window edge of
A tree that grows in northern countries. The wood is hard and pale
brownish yellow in color, dense and somewhat heavy. Even though hard,
it is easy to carve. Birch bark is waterproof because of its natural
bird’s eye maple
A North American hardwood valued for cabinet work and frame
molding. The hard, strong, heavy, close grained wood is beautifully
patterned. This wood of the sugar maple is characterized by a wavy
grain causing bird’s eye like markings.
Having to do with plants, most often used in reference to artwork
depicting plants or flowers.
In multiple mat combinations, that mat which is nearest the art.
Lightweight plastic sheet packaging material with air filled
Small self-adhesive pad, made of rubber, cork or felt, used on the
bottom corners of the dust cover or back of a frame to hold the frame
away from the wall at the bottom, allowing air to circulate. Also
steadies the frame on the wall.
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Handwriting as an art. Elegant penmanship with decoration and
design of primary importance.
1) A heavy woven fabric usually of cotton or linen, used as a
support for a painting. The surface is prepared for painting by
applying gesso or rabbit skin glue. 2) Interlocked or woven fibers
used as the ground material for needle art.
Common gray cardboard or pasteboard to which a white cotton cloth,
prepared for painting, has been glued or pasted.
Heavy pliers with elongated jaws for grasping the edges of a piece
of canvas when stretching it onto a stretcher frame. A square
extension at the middle of the lower jaw is called the hammer; its
most important function is to supply leverage against the back of the
A process which lifts the image on a print off the paper support
so that it can be transferred to a canvas mount.
To form into a particular shape by pouring fluid matter into a
mold and allowing it to harden, such as making a picture frame
Paper made by pressing the pulp into a die or mold used for
casting or shaping, becoming a work of art in and of itself.
A catalogue which chronicles all known works of an artist, along
with pertinent details on each piece.
A tree that grows in the northern hemisphere; the wood is hard and
light weight. It is golden brown in color with a hint of green. It can
be easily distinguished from other brownish woods by its golden sheen.
American: A hardwood tree that grows in the northeastern United
States; the wood is coarse in texture, moderately light and strong. It
is grayish brown or brown in color. It seasons well and is easily
worked with tools.
A board made entirely from recycled paper products, containing a
variety of impurities. It is an inexpensive mounting and backing board
for non-conservation/preservation framing.
(v) To cut picture frame molding, usually at a 45 degree angle, to
the length needed for a frame.
(n) The length of molding cut for a picture frame.
A small embossed seal or impression on a print, generally
indicating the printer or artist.
A color photograph based on the silver dye-bleach system. The
necessary colors (azo dyes) are built into the emulsion layers. These
colors are bleached out where not needed during developing. Azo dyes
produce more brilliant colors and have greater stability and
resistance to light than any other current process. Ilford has renamed
its process Ilfochrome.
Glass made with a smooth or polished surface on both sides. It is
not etched, coated or laminated.
The control of temperature and relative humidity to produce an
environment with little fluctuation, ideally 50 percent relative
humidity and 70 degrees F.
Generic for a method of framing. A set of clips used to hold the
glazing, art and backing together for display. Generally made of metal
and not to be confused with braquettes or uni-frames.
Paper treated with clay or other adhesive mixture to improve the
finish for printing, color, smoothness or other surface property. This
also includes lacquered and varnished papers. (29)
Artwork created by securing pieces of paper, fabric or other
materials onto a substrate. Though basically two-dimensional, it may
have a sculptural effect.
1) Used to refer to perceived qualities that result from the
response of vision to the wavelength of reflected or transmitted
light. 2) Describes images that have hues, as opposed to black, white
and gray tones only and the processes used to make them.
A spectrum of colors placed in a circle including the three
primary colors: red, yellow and blue, and the secondary colors:
orange, green and purple. Colors opposite each other on the wheel are
Colors which are directly opposite each other on the color wheel,
e.g., red and green, blue and orange.
Relief ornaments made from a mixture of whiting, oil, resin and
animal hide glue. Pliable when heated, self-adhesive when wet and hard
The arrangement of elements, shapes and colors in a work of art.
In framing, it is the careful maintenance and protection of works
In conservation (preservation) framing, using materials and procedures
that will have no adverse effects on a piece of artwork and will
protect the artwork from external damage.
Exclusive rights to reproduce, sell and distribute a work, prepare
derivative works and display the work publicly.
Short molding lengths mitered and joined to form a corner. Used as
visual aids during the framing design process. Also referred to as
Certified Picture Framer. One who has passed the Professional
Picture Framers Association’s certification examination.
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The feathery edge of a sheet of handmade paper, caused by the
deckle or frame which confines the pulp to the mold. Also present on
some machine-made papers, caused by the rubber deckle straps at the
sides of the paper machine.
Decoration of a surface by covering it completely with cut out
paper forms. The process used in making collages.
1) The selection and arrangement of the formal elements in a work
of art; the expression of the artist’s conception in terms of a
composition. Click here for a description of design
1) A set of two prints making one complete image. 2) An ancient
writing tablet consisting of two pieces of wood or ivory hinged
together, with the inner sides waxed for writing on with a stylus.
dry cleaning pad
A soft cloth bag filled with erasing powder. Used for removing
dirt and smudges on mat board and paper.
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A freestanding structure designed to hold an artist’s canvas or
panel during painting. Also may be decorative for display.
The total number of copies printed from the same plates or blocks
and published about the same time.
To beautify by ornamentation.
An embellishment raised in relief from the surface.
1) A glossy substance, usually opaque, applied by fusion to the
surface or metal, pottery, etc., as an ornament or for protection. 2)
Any of various enamel-like varnishes or paints.
Lines cut into a plate by hand with a steel burin or graver; no
acid is used. The metal which is displaced in cutting is smoothed with
a scraper which results in crisp, meticulous lines. Then the entire
plate is thoroughly inked, with care taken to force the ink down into
all of the lines, completely filling them. The surface is wiped clean,
leaving the incised lines filled. A press is used to transfer the
image onto paper.
A printing process. A metal plate is covered with an
acid-resisting ground. The design is scratched through this ground,
exposing the metal beneath. The plate is then immersed in an acid
bath, causing the scratched or exposed areas to be eaten away. The
plate is wiped clean, inked and the higher surfaces cleaned again,
allowing the ink to remain in the incised areas. A press is then used
to transfer the image onto paper. (n) Art work so executed.
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- fabric mat
A mat which has been covered with fabric.
To lose or cause to lose brightness or brilliance or definition of
line, form and color.
A small molding with profile that may be used as an edging on a
mat or frame lip. Profiles may differ somewhat. May also be called a
The process of assembling glass, mats, artwork and filler board
into a picture frame, including the addition of a dust cover, hangers
and bumper pads.
A means of securing artwork to a rigid support so all edges are
A window mat raised or elevated off the underneath surface by
A molding designed to give the artwork the appearance of floating
within the frame. Floater frames have a rabbet in reverse; the artwork
is fitted in from the front.
A flat container for holding/storing artwork
That decorative or functional element which surrounds an item,
providing protection and display functions. Typically made of wood or
metal, a frame generally provides the architectural support element
for a work of art.
1) The characteristic appearance of a frame, identified with a
historical period or as being that of a particular frame maker. 2) The
process whereby the appearance of a frame is planned, designed and
executed. 3) The process whereby framing components are selected for a
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- gicleé (gee-clay)
Giclee' - is a French term meaning "spraying of ink."
Printing is directly from information obtained from the original
painting, Iris Printers spray microscopic drops of color on to a
fine art paper or canvas. Displaying the full color spectrum, these
artworks have vibrant, brilliant colors and a velvety texture.
This gives the finished product the look and texture of an original
The art of adhering thin metal, silver or gold leaf to a
A style of matting, the mat is painted, etched or leafed onto the
surface of a piece of glass.
A semi-transparent paper. A smooth, non-abrasive surface makes it
ideal for interleaving or overlaying delicate artwork, such as a
fragile etching or pastel painting, and it will not adhere to the
varnish on oil paintings.
1) A protective interface between the environment and the work of
art including glass and acrylic sheets. 2) In oil painting, a thin
layer of a transparent coating applied to the dried painting. 3) In
ceramics, a thin coating applied to a piece before it is put in the
kiln. It functions as a means to waterproof the object, change its
color or generally alter its appearance. 4) On frame molding, a thin
coat of color applied over a base finish to change its appearance.
gold leafA very thin sheet of beaten gold used in gilding.
Also referred to as "loose leaf." Gold leaf is available in
12-23 karat gold. Each leaf is cut to a standard 3 3/8 inches square
and has a thickness of approximately 1/300,000 of an inch. Gold leaf
is packaged in books of 25 leaves, each leaf separated by tissue
paper. A pack or box of gold leaf contains 20 books, for a total of
1) An opaque watercolor paint. 2) A painting done with such a
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A print that has been manually lifted from the printing plate.
A hardwood tree that grows throughout the eastern half of the
United States; the wood is exceptionally tough, heavy, hard and
A small piece of paper or tape generally used to attach paper art
to a mounting board.
hors de commerce
Similar to an artist’s proof. Impressions pulled outside of the
regular edition for the use by the publishers.
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A sheet of cardboard with a sheet of drawing paper mounted on one
side. Illustration boards are mostly used by commercial artists
1) The printed or colored portion of a print. 2) A physical
likeness or representation of a person, animal or thing; photographed,
painted, sculpted or otherwise made visible.
A mark or depression made by pressure.
A term that includes all metal plate engraving and etching
processes in which the printing areas are recessed, e.g., engraving,
etching, drypoint and aquatint.
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- Japanese paper
Handmade paper with a web of strong naturally formed fibers; ideal
for hinging purposes. The best are made with 100 percent kozo or gampi
fibers, which have not been bleached or chemically processed.
In framing, the operation of gluing and nailing the corners of a
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A triangular wedge of wood or plastic inserted into the grooves at
the inside corners of a stretcher frame. Used to tighten the canvas by
expanding the stretcher frame joints.
Strong wrapping paper, usually brown, made from wood chips boiled
in an alkaline solution containing sodium sulfate. Comes on a roll in
different weights and widths.
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(n) A protective coating consisting of a resin or cellulose ester
or both, which is dissolved in a volatile solvent sometimes with a
pigment added. (v) To cover with a coating to produce a smooth, hard
A frame or object that has had gold, silver or metal leaf applied
To raise or elevate the window mat off the artwork by means of
spacers made of mat board or foam board strips attached to the
mounting board or the underside of the mat and not visible.
The issue of something collectible, such as prints, limited to a
certain quantity of numbered copies. The first number indicates the
number of the piece; the second number indicates the total quantity of
the edition, e.g., 135/250.
1) A frame molding used within the outer molding. May be covered
with fabric, often velvet or linen. Many liners are made from fully
finished frame stock, including gold or silver. Sometimes called an
insert. If over 2 1/2 inches wide, called a panel. 2) Inner mats and
fillets are also called liners.
A generic term used to designate a print made by a planographic
process, such as an original lithograph done on a lithographic stone
or a commercial print made by a photo-mechanical process
The traditional planographic printing method which involves
drawing or painting with greasy crayons or inks on a limestone block.
The surface is then moistened with water. An oily ink is applied to
the stone and adheres only to the drawing. The ink is repelled by the
water which has soaked into the areas around the drawing. The print is
pulled by pressing paper against the inked drawing, using a press.
Variations of the technique are widely used in commercial
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A printer’s name for red, in the four-color additive printing
system which includes cyan, yellow and black. (8)
A tree which grows in West Africa, South and Central America; the
wood is quite soft and light weight; has a coppery-red color. Valued
for its color, workability and because it does not shrink or warp.
A tree which grows in northeastern North America; the wood is
hard, heavy and strong; the color varies from pale grayish to
yellowish white. It is not durable for outdoor use, but is the best of
all woods for flooring.
In sculpture, a small scale model.
(window mat) A border, usually made from mat board, placed around
a print, photograph, etc., to serve as a spacer or separation between
the picture and the frame.
A multi-ply board usually comprised of a core, adhesive, facing
and backing paper. Commonly four-ply, but available in other
thicknesses. May be rag board or made of wood fiber. The surface paper
comes in a wide variety of colors. In framing, used to make the window
mat and as a mounting board for artwork.
A tool for cutting the window opening in a mat. May be a small
hand-held tool or include various levels of sophistication with regard
to guide bar, measuring devices, fittings for special effects, oval
cutting capability and possibly hydraulic clamps.
1) The specific tool and material used by an artist, e.g., brush
and oil paint, chisel and stone. 2) The mode of expression employed by
an artist, e.g., painting, sculpture, the graphic arts. 3) A liquid
that may be added to a paint to increase its manipulability without
decreasing its adhesive, binding or film-forming properties.
Collection of objects that have a sentimental value.
metal sectional frame
A frame of anodized extruded aluminum sections.
An intaglio process in which the plate is pitted all over with a
tool called a "rocker." By scraping or burnishing the raised
burrs, gradations of light and shade may be produced in the printed
image. Mezzotints are characterized by a rich, velvet overall
appearance with numerous tonal ranges.
Describes artwork which is in the same condition as it was when
originally finished, printed, etc. Taken from coinage, in the same
condition as it was when it was minted
A heavy duty hanging device attached to the back of a frame with
screws, characterized by having a holding ring at the top through
which a thin, narrow metal strip has been passed and folded in half.
To cut frame molding on an angle for joining to other mitered
(mwa-ray) A lustrous watermark of wavy design placed on fabric by
passing it through heated ridged rollers under pressure. Makes
an attractive fabric pattern covering for mats.
A painting or drawing of different shades of one color.
A one-of-a-kind print made by painting on a sheet or slab and
transferring the still wet painting to a sheet of paper by a hand
method; if the painting is done on a metal sheet, it may be run
through a press.
A distinctive and recurring form, shape or figure.
Wood or metal which has been refined and shaped and which includes
a rabbet for use in the framing industry as frame stock.
A surface, substrate or secondary support to which any art or
object is attached.
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- non-glare glass
Glass which has been etched on one or both sides, which defuses
the light, resulting in a minimum of glare and reflection.
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A tree that grows in northern countries; the wood is hard, heavy,
has a strong distinctive grain and is very acidic. Most oak has a
yellowish brown color.
A process in which the printed image is transferred, or offset,
from one roller or plate to another and then transferred to the
printing paper. Offset lithographs should be termed reproductions
rather than originals prints. This process eliminates the need to draw
the image in reverse on the stone or plate.
Artists’ colors made by dispersing pigments in linseed oil or
another vegetable drying oil and having the consistency of a smooth
An edition having an unlimited number of prints in it.
A unique piece of artwork that cannot be exactly duplicated, e.g.,
an oil painting on canvas. While the image may be duplicated as a
print, the reproduction is not oil paint on canvas.
Heavily ornamented, overly adorned, showy.
A frame with an elliptical shape.
A mat with an elliptical opening; may have an oval or rectangular
In animation art, a portion of a scene, generally a foreground
element, painted on or applied to a cel and laid over the action to
create the illusion of depth.
Describes the size of a frame or materials that are larger than
standard 32- by 40-inch mat board.
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1) A non-absorbent surface on which to mix paint. 2) The set of
colors on such a surface. 3) The range of colors a given artist or
school of art prefers.
A thin blade of varying flexibility set in a handle; used for
mixing paints or applying them to a surface.
A substance made from cotton, wood or other fibrous material,
usually in thin sheets, used for writing, printing or drawing.
The direction in which most of the fibers in a piece of paper are
oriented and the axis along which the paper tears and flexes most
easily. Grain is usually found only in machine made papers, although
it is also present in some handmade oriental papers. (24)
1) A translucent or opaque material made from split skins of small
animals, usually lambs or kids (goat) that have been limed, void of
hair, scraped and dried under tension to produce a fine, thin, strong
surface for writing, bookbinding or other uses. 2) Paper with a
texture resembling true parchment.
1) A crayon made from pigment mixed with just enough biding agent
to hold it together. 2) A drawing (painting) made with pastel crayons.
1) A film or encrustation, usually green, appearing gradually on a
surface of copper and bronze, due to weathering and as a result of
oxidation. 2) An opaque toning used to stimulate aging or to dull the
brightness of a gilded surface. 3) A deep, soft polished gleam
acquired by wood and metal after years of wear and polishing.
A tree that grows in the warmer parts of the United States and
Mexico. It is large with hard, but brittle, wood.
A frame specifically designed for standard sized photographs,
often with an easel backing.
A printing technique in which a negative is exposed to a
photo-sensitized lithographic plate, the image is then developed on
the plate. Non-image areas are desensitized and the image area becomes
an ink attracting surface. The plate is inked and printed in the
A structure, usually of wood or metal in which a painting, print
or other object is enclosed to improve or enhance its appearance, to
isolate it from a wall or to link it to a decor, as well as to support
and protect it.
A device attached to the wall on which the frame is hung or
attached to the molding of a frame by which the picture is hung.
A soft braided or solid wire, available in several thicknesses to
support various weights, which may be coated with flexible plastic,
attached to the back of framed pictures.
A tree that grows in a variety of locations around the world. The
wood varies from very soft to hard, is light weight and straight
grained. It is white or yellowish in color.
A small metal plate mounted on a frame, usually showing the
artist’s name and name of the artwork.
A painting, sculpture, drawing, photograph or other representation
of a particular individual.
1) An inexpensive printed reproduction of a piece of artwork. 2) A
placard or print intended for posting in a public place as an
The Professional Picture Framers Association. A professional trade
association that serves the art and framing industry.
Red, yellow and blue. No combination of other colors will yield a
primary color; combinations of the primary colors yield all other
A generic term used to describe an impression made on paper from a
block, plate or film negative, for example.
1) The outline of the exposed surface of a molding cross-section.
2) An outline of the contour of a face, viewed from the side.
A record of previous ownership and previous locations for a work
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- rag board
Mat board from non-wood products such as cotton linters or cotton
which are naturally lignin free, stable and durable. Made with a
non-acidic (pH neutral or alkaline if buffered) sizing.
Paper with all the qualities and benefits of rag board, but much
thinner. Used to make photo corners and for other light weight
applications in framing.
ready made frame
A frame ready for purchase as is, as opposed to a custom-made
frame. Ready mades are usually produced in standard sizes, e.g., 8x10,
To remove an artwork from a frame and reinstall in the same or
In multicolor printing, small dots, circles, crosses, etc., placed
in the margin of the key (main) block, plate, etc., and which are
transferred exactly to each printing surface made from the key. These
marks enable the printer to align all the printing surfaces, so that
each color impression will be in register with all the other
A designation for standard single-strength window glass (2.5 mm).
1) A small sketch engraved in the margin of a printing plate,
usually removed before the final edition is printed. 2) A printing
plate with such a mark.
Produced after the original edition was issued and from the
original plates or blocks.
Cosmetic repair of an object to recreate its original appearance.
Produced after the original edition was issued and from the
original plates or blocks. Often made years after the artist’s
A common misnomer for Japanese paper. A smooth, white material
favored by Chinese painters; cut off, in a spiral manner, from the
pith of the Fatsia papyrifera tree. Not a paper, similar to papyrus
and tapa in that regard.
A tree that grows in India, South and Central America. The wood is
hard and very heavy. A special feature is the silvery sparkle it gives
off when placed under light.
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- sawtooth hanger
A strip of metal approximately 1/4 inch wide with a sawtooth
configuration cut into one edge. The hanger is attached to the back of
the frame and combined with a nail or hook in the wall to complete the
A common frame molding shape, a cross section showing a concave or
A screw with a head shaped into a loop to which the hanging wire
on the back of a picture frame is attached.
An arena where limited edition prints are resold after the edition
has been sold out at the original sources.
A type of hanger with one section attached to the back of the
frame and the other to the wall. When positioned together, the frame
is held securely and requires a special tool to separate the hanger
1) A dark brown color. 2) A dark brown pigment, used in paints and
Artwork created to resemble an animation cel, but using screen
A method of printing using a hand-cut or photographically prepared
stencil attached to silk or a polyester fabric through which color is
forced. Also, referred to as a silk-screen or screen print.
A frame made from a deep molding in which three-dimensional
objects may be displayed.
(n) A clear plastic film which shrinks when heated. It comes in
various qualities and thicknesses. (v) The act of wrapping an object
in this film.
A stencil process of printing in which a cloth (originally silk)
is stretched over a heavy frame and the design painted by tusche or
affixed by stencil. It is printed by having a squeegee force color
through the pores of the fabric in areas not blocked out. The term
silk-screen now implies a commercial use, the same process used in
fine art is termed serigraph.
Silver that has been beaten into thin sheets. Silver leaf is more
delicate than imitation gold, but sturdier than genuine gold; can be
cut with scissors and picked up with fingers. A very versatile leaf;
the color can be modified with a tinted shellac, sometimes known as
There are various types of spring clips, used to hold a stretcher
frame in a wooden frame or artwork in a metal frame. The canvas type
hook on the stretcher bar and to the inside of the wooden frame. The
type for metal frames fits between the back inside edge of the frame
and the backing board.
A limited edition print of a game stamp, e.g., duck stamp print.
standard size frame
A frame built to one of a variety of sizes deemed standard in the
framing industry, e.g., 5x7, 8,10, 16x20.
A painting or drawing of a group of inanimate objects contrived by
the artist according to some theme, either symbolic or merely
To pull a fabric taut over a rigid support and secure; e.g., a
canvas over a stretched frame or a needle art over foam board.
A strip of wood with tongue-and-groove ends. Bars are joined to
form an expandable frame over which canvas is stretched.
A term from substratum meaning a layer lying under another.
Generally used to denote a foundation material upon which an item is
mounted or otherwise functions as a carrier.
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1) A fabric consisting of a warp upon which colored threads are
woven by hand to produce a design, often pictorial, used for wall
hanging, on furniture, etc. 2) A machine woven reproduction of this
A tree that grows in Southern India and Southeast Asia. The wood
is extremely hard (ordinary nails cannot be driven into it), very
heavy (logs sink in water) and uniquely resistant to attack by
insects, fungi and chemicals (it is not harmed by acids or alkalis).
The color varies from yellow brown to rich brown. It has a course
texture, usually is straight grained and has an oily feel; excellent
dimensional stability and durability.
1) A set of three paintings or bas reliefs, related in subject
matter and connected side by side. The two outside half-panels (called
wings) may be closed over the central panel. 2) A set of three prints
that make one complete image.
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- ultraviolet (UV) light
Short, high energy invisible light waves beyond violet in the
spectrum with a length of 250 to 400 nanometers.
In framing, the combined inches of one length and one width of a
frame; e.g., an 8x10 frame is 18 united inches.
UV filtering acrylic sheet
A glazing material consisting of an acrylic sheet which has been
formulated to remove the damaging ultraviolet rays from light.
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1) The degree of lightness or darkness of a hue. 2) The general
degree of lightness or darkness of a surface.
1) Pertaining or belonging to the period during which Queen
Victoria of Great Britain reigned, c. 1840-c. 1900. 2) Characterized
by the presence of heavily carved ornaments, elaborate molding, etc.;
use of strong, generally dark colors; emphasis on geometric form
rather than on textural effects and frequently by an effect of
1) An ornamental design of vine leaves, tendrils and grapes, used
as a boarder on a page. 2) A small, pleasing picture or view. 3) Small
illustration or design on the title page of a book or at the beginning
or end of a chapter. 4) An engraving, drawing, photograph or the like
that is shaded gradually at the edges so as to not leave a definite
line at the borders.
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A tree that grows in Australia, Europe and America; the wood is
hard, heavy and exceptionally stable (it does not shrink or warp). The
color varies from pink to chocolate brown.
1) The technique of painting with pigments dispersed in a gum
Arabic solution. 2) A work of art so produced. 3) The paint used in
1) A design, pattern or mark on paper, usually produced by a
raised area on which the paper is made. Watermarks on handmade papers
are made by very low relief molds or designs of fine wire set on the
screen on which the moist pulp collects.
A highly exacting technique involving engraving on a piece of
polished endwood. Endwood is a cross-cut section of wood which has
little or no perceptible grain. This allows for cutting of delicate
lines in any direction.
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